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Scrambler Therapy® Clinical Trials Published

ST clinical trials are listed in a chronological order and were held mainly in Italy and U.S.. Published clinical trials have been classified and analyzed on the bases of compliance with Scrambler Therapy usage, and standard protocols and usage.

Scientific articles of reference (theory, methodology, clinic)


Publications compliant with standard protocols and methodology usage

Publications that only partially comply to standard protocols and methodology usage

Publications with significant deviations from standard protocols and methodology usage

Scientific articles of reference (theory, methodology, clinic)

Marineo G.Inside the Scrambler Therapy, a Noninvasive Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic and Cancer Pain: From the Gate Control Theory to the Active Principle of Information. Integr Cancer Ther. 2019 Jan-Dec;18:1534735419845143. doi: 10.1177/1534735419845143. PubMed PMID: 31014125

Marineo G.Untreatable pain resulting from abdominal cancer: new hope from biophysics?JOP. 2003 Jan;4(1):1-10. PubMed PMID: 12555009


Chwistek M. Recent advances in understanding and managing cancer pain. F1000Res. 2017 Jun 20;6:945. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.10817.1. eCollection 2017. Review. PubMed PMID: 28690839; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5482325

RMajithia N, Smith TJ, Coyne PJ, Abdi S, Pachman DR, Lachance D, Shelerud R, Cheville A, Basford JR, Farley D, O'Neill C, Ruddy KJ, Sparadeo F, Beutler A, Loprinzi CL. Scrambler Therapy for the management of chronic pain. Support Care Cancer. 2016 Jun;24(6):2807-14. doi: 10.1007/s00520-016-3177-3. Epub 2016 Apr 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 27041741; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC497

Publications compliant with standard protocols and methodology usage 

Tomasello C, Pinto RM, Mennini C, Conicella E, Stoppa F, Raucci U. Scrambler Therapy efficacy and safety for neuropathic pain correlated with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in adolescents: A preliminary study.Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 Apr 6:e27064. doi: 10.1002/pbc.27064. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29630779.

Fabbri L, Pirotti SP, Rosati M, Ruffilli N, Maltoni M, Ricci M. Phantom limb pain successfully treated with scrambler therapy. Minerva Anestesiol. 2018 May;84(5):642-643. doi: 10.23736/S0375-9393.18.12490-4. Epub 2018 Jan 17. PubMed PMID: 29343050

Smith T, Cheville AL, Loprinzi CL, Longo-Schoberlein D. Scrambler Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Post-Mastectomy Pain (cPMP). Cureus. 2017 Jun21;9(6):e1378. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1378. PubMed PMID: 28775918; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5522013

Kashyap K, Joshi S, Vig S, Singh V, Bhatnagar S. Impact of Scrambler Therapy on Pain Management and Quality of Life in Cancer Patients: A Study of Twenty Cases. Indian J Palliat Care. 2017 Jan-Mar;23(1):18-23. doi: 10.4103/0973-1075.197948. Erratum in: Indian J Palliat Care. 2017 Apr-Jun;23(2):217. PubMed PMID: 28216858; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC52944323603.

Raucci U, Tomasello C, Marri M, Salzano M, Gasparini A, Conicella E. Scrambler Therapy(®) MC-5A for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Case Reports. Pain Pract. 2016 Jul 2. doi: 10.1111/papr.12474. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27370908

Smith TJ, Auwaerter P, Knowlton A, Saylor D, McArthur J. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related peripheral neuropathy with Scrambler Therapy: a case report. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Jun 21. pii: 0956462416656688. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27330020

Compagnone C, Tagliaferri F, Amato F, Ballerini G, Berlinghieri F, Bertini L, Bordin G, Buonavolontà P, Cascioli A, Ceccaroni F,Cautillo A,Ciaschi A, Dodaro LM,Fanelli G,Greco F, Lesignoli P,Martini O,Papa A, Quatrone D, Raffaeli W, Mediati R, Velluci R. Chronic pain treatment and scrambler therapy: a multicenter retrospective analysis. Acta Biomed. 2015 Sep 14;86(2):149-156. PubMed PMID: 26422429.

Notaro P, Dell'Agnola CA, Dell'Agnola AJ, Amatu A, Bencardino KB, Siena S. Pilot evaluation of scrambler therapy for pain induced by bone and visceral metastases and refractory to standard therapies. Support Care Cancer. 2015 Sep 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26408323. Smith TJ,

Smith TJ, Marineo G. Treatment of Postherpetic Pain With Scrambler Therapy, a Patient-Specific Neurocutaneous Electrical Stimulation Device. Am J HospPalliat Care. 2013 Jul 8. [Epubahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23838448.

Marineo G, Iorno V, Gandini C, Moschini V, Smith TJ. Scrambler therapy may relieve chronic neuropathic pain more effectively than guideline-based drug management: results of a pilot, randomized, controlled trial. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012 Jan;43(1):87-95. doi: 10.1016/j.j pain sym man.2011.03.015. Epub 2011 Jul 16. PubMed PMID: 21763099.

Sabato AF, Marineo G, Gatti A. Scrambler therapy. Minerva Anestesiol. 2005 Jul-Aug;71(7-8):479-82. PubMed PMID: 16012423. Marineo G. Untreatable pain resulting from abdominal cancer: new hope from biophysics? JOP. 2003 Jan;4(1):1-10. PubMed PMID: 12555009.

Marineo G. Untreatable pain resulting from abdominal cancer: new hope from biophysics? JOP. 2003 Jan;4(1):1-10. PubMed PMID: 12555009.

Publications that only partially comply to standard protocols and methodology usage

Ricci M, Fabbri L, Pirotti S, Ruffilli N, Foca F, Maltoni M. Scrambler therapy: what's new after 15 years? The results from 219 patients treated for chronic pain. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jan;98(2):e13895. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000013895. PubMed PMID: 30633163; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6336541

Lee SC, Park KS, Moon JY, Kim EJ, Kim YC, Seo H, Sung JK, Lee da J. An exploratory study on the effectiveness of "Calmare therapy" in patients with cancer-related neuropathic pain: A pilot study. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2016 Apr;21:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2015.12.001. Epub 2015 Dec 29. PubMed PMID: 2695267

Pachman DR, Weisbrod BL, Seisler DK, Barton DL, Fee-Schroeder KC, Smith TJ,Lachance DH, Liu H, Shelerud RA, Cheville AL, Loprinzi CL. Pilot evaluation of Scrambler therapy for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Support Care Cancer. 2014 Sep 24. [Epubahead of print] PubMed PMID:25245776.

Ghatak RK, Nandi SN, Bhakta A, Mandal GC, BandyopadhyayM,Kumar S. Prospective study of application of biological communication (cybernatics) in management of chronic low back pain--a preliminary report. Nepal MedColl J. 2011 Dec;13(4):257-60. PubMed PMID: 23016475.

Smith TJ, Coyne PJ, Parker GL, Dodson P, Ramakrishnan V. Pilot trial of a patient-specific cutaneous electrostimulationdevice MC5-A for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Dec;40(6):883-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.03.022. PubMed PMID: 20813492.

Publications with significant deviations from standard protocols and methodology usage

(*) Smith TJ, Razzak AR, Blackford AL, Ensminger J, Saiki C, Longo-Schoberlein D, Loprinzi CL. A Pilot Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial of MC5-A Scrambler Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) .J Palliat Care. 2019 Feb 3:825859719827589. doi: 10.1177/0825859719827589. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30714486.

(*) Starkweather AR, Coyne P, Lyon DE, Elswick RK Jr, An K, Sturgill J. Decreased low back pain intensity and differential gene expression following Calmare®:results from a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled study. Res NursHealth. 2015 Feb;38(1):29-38. doi: 10.1002/nur.21632. Epub 2015 Jan 8. PubMedPMID:25572279.

Moon JY, Kurihara C, Beckles JP, Williams KE, Jamison DE, Cohen SP. Predictive Factors Associated with Success and Failure for Calmare (Scrambler) Therapy: A Multi-Center Analysis. Clin J Pain. 2014 Sep 17. [Epubahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25232861. Comment in: Abdi S, Smith TJ, Marineo G. Letter to the Editor. Clin J Pain. 2014 Nov 3.[Epubahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25370140.

Coyne PJ, Wan W, Dodson P, Swainey C, Smith TJ. A trial of Scrambler therapy in the treatment of cancer pain syndromes and chronic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. J PainPalliat Care Pharmacother. 2013 Dec;27(4):359-64.doi: 10.3109/15360288.2013.847519. Epub 2013 Oct 21. PubMed PMID: 24143893.

Park HS, Sin WK, Kim HY, Moon JY, Park SY, Kim YC, Lee SC. Scrambler therapy for patients with cancer pain - case series -. Korean J Pain. 2013 Jan;26(1):65-71. doi: 10.3344/kjp.2013.26.1.65. Epub 2013 Jan 4. PubMed PMID:23342211; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3546214.

Ko YK, Lee HY, Lee WY. Clinical experiences on the effect of scrambler therapy for patients with postherpetic neuralgia. Korean J Pain. 2013 Jan;26(1):98-101. doi: 10.3344/kjp.2013.26.1.98. Epub 2013 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 23342218; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3546221.

Ricci M, Pirotti S, Scarpi E, Burgio M, Maltoni M, Sansoni E, Amadori D. Managing chronic pain: results from an open-label study using MC5-A Calmare device. Support Care Cancer. 2012 Feb;20(2):405-12. doi:10.1007/s00520-011-1128-6. Epub 2011 Mar 11. Erratum in: Support Care Cancer. 2013 Mar;21(3):913. PubMed PMID: 21394458. Comment in: Inaccuracy in the article "Managing chronic pain: results from an open-label study using MC5-A Calmare device in Support Care Cancer". [Support Care Cancer. 2011]

(*) The proper use of ST, that being operator-dependent, allows only for a partial double blind or single blind trial design. Attempts to do a complete double blind clinical trial, automatically causes substantial changes in the standard treatment protocol, which requires substantial patient interaction to determine proper placements of electrodes and intensity of treatment. These changes prevent the operator to follow the normal procedures registered in the healthcare authorizations and can erase or significantly reduce the efficacy of the treatment, consequently invalidating the scientific data.

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