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Conflict of interest in the scientific field 

Conflict of interest in the scientific field is a normal feature. In order to exist research needs a sponsor and therefore undergoes pressure from competition and companies that want to conquer and retain market positions. Conflict of interest might also exist due to simple prestige or scientific domain purposes, such as defense from more advanced competitive researches.

Within this conflict of interest (substantially physiological) framework, which potentially involves every sector of the scientific community, the solution is almost always delegated and confined merely to individual ethics, coupled with compliance to some general transparency rules. 

The most common conflict of interest specifically pertains to:

Basic research

Patents or other forms of intellectual property.Patents being essential for research survival.

University or other research facilities

Patents, sponsored clinical studies, funding. Also in this case lack of economic resources prevents research development.

Scientific paper reviewer

Only the editor can control this specific conflict of interest, since the reviewer is always anonymous to the public. The reviewer has a strong power to decide, and in this case the potential conflict of interest is even more delicate. The reviewer is an expert in the field and thus normally provides professional advice or might be sponsored by companies that can feel threatened by the content of the article under review. If this were the case the reviewer’s decision could be biased.  The reviewer could also be the author of a research on the same topic and defend personal interests. Obviously, however quality scientific journals are well aware of the issue that has been strongly debated in the scientific community and know how to choose reviewers according to the content of the paper under review.


In a nutshell, regardless of what individuals want, there don’t seem to be adequate “environmental” conditions for progress in research and truly unbiased assessments. Therefore conflict of interest must always be explicitly disclosed for a transparent outcome.

Conflict of interest in the Scrambler Therapy

The author of Scrambler Therapy basic and applied research, Prof. Giuseppe Marineo, is the owner of patents on technology application, a physiological event for every successful scientific research. Parts of the economic return on patents are redistributed to financiers who enabled the initial research development. The other proceeds are reinvested in new development activities, and social goals. Apart from this, the author has no further conflict of interest.

To neutralize the conflict of interest, all clinical trials signed by the author have been carried out independently in accredited clinics and public hospital facilities.

International basic training activity provided by the author to clinical researchers and physicians is completely free. Trained clinical researchers and physicians will they themselves become trainers in the countries where they work. 

Furthermore, the author provides free consulting to clinical researchers and pain centers that need to broaden their knowledge about Scrambler Therapy. 

The author is the creator of the "ST-NET project". Also in this case the software, which set up a worldwide network for Scrambler Therapy users, is completely free.

Still in view of complete transparency, “ST-NET project” will enable any Public Health Care Facility to monitor autonomously virtual phase IV studies worldwide. The author hopes this will favor National healthcare decisions capable of safeguarding chronic pain patients of weaker social economic brackets, who at the current state of scientific knowledge, International and multi-centric clinical experience can be treated only with Scrambler Therapy.